I suppose you have found your solution by that time.
There are at least 2 ways to do that.
One is using PIVOT, but I will suggest a simpler way - multiple JOIN.
In Settings you have in one record 4 different references to Formulas - right?
Then you need to JOIN the Formula for each key, so 4 times, only with different alias:
select FPosSollSt3.Text, FPosSollSt3Vk.Text, FPosKurzSt3.Text, FPosKurzSt3Vk.Text
from Settings S JOIN Formel as FPosSollSt3 ON S.PosSollSt3 = FPosSollSt3.ID
JOIN Formel as FPosSollSt3Vk ON S.PosSollSt3Vk = FPosSollSt3Vk.ID
JOIN Formel as FPosKurzSt3 ON S.PosKurzSt3 = FPosKurzSt3.ID
JOIN Formel as FPosKurzSt3Vk ON S.PosKurzSt3Vk = FPosKurzSt3Vk.ID
Maciej Puchalski, Oct 06, 2016